1. According to the position to the head-word the underlined attribute in the sentence «He gave a book with a strange picture on its cover.» is… a) postpositive; b) prepositive; c) phrasal.

 

Postpositive attributes are used with one of two main functions — restrictive or non-restrictive modification. Restrictive postpositive attributes serve to identify the intended reference of the head-noun, e.g-:Richard hit the ball on the car that was going past (D. Biber et al.).

По русски: постпозиционное определение- стоит после определяемого слова (книжку (какую?) со странной картинкой на обложке). Препозиционно- перед определяемым словом (синее небо- начинаем с неба, определение перед определяемым словом). Ну и фразовое- неделимое словосочетание.

 

2. «A smile» in the sentence «He smiled upon the young men a smile at once personal and presidential» is… a) a direct object; b) a double predicate; c) a cognate object.

 

Types of objects

direct

It is used after transitive verbs without any prepositions. There are verbs which have two direct objects.

I moved my head negatively.

I helped him.

He mounted the horse.

I asked him his name.

Forgive me this question.

indirect

1. It expresses the addressee of the action, it is used with transitive verbs and comes before the direct object. The indirect object – noun follows the direct object – pronoun. The direct object – pronoun it precedes the indirect object. After verbs to explain, to dictate, to suggest, to relate, to announce, to ascribe, to attribute, to communicate, to introduce, to repeat, to submit, to dedicate, to disclose, to interpret, to point out the indirect object is used with preposition to

She gave him an interesting book to read.

She sent Soames the telegram.

But: She sent the telegram to Soames.

I sent him to his mother.

Give it to him.

I shall dictate to you the names of the books.

The teacher explained to us some new riles.

 

2. prepositional indirect object is used with verbs, adjectives, statives, nouns of verbal origin.

I am uneasy about it.

She was not aware of his being there.

Her behaviour to her friends was irreproachable.

complex

The first component of it is a noun in the common case or in the possessive case, a personal pronoun in the objective case, or a possessive pronoun; the second is an infinitive, a participle, a gerund, a noun, a stative, a prepositional phrase. It is expressed

She thinks herself very clever.

He felt himself unusually on edge.

Dick found himself walking in the direction of his friend.

 

 

by a participial or a gerundial construction, an Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction, for-to-Infinitive Construction.

His new duties had kept him occupied.

My lady assures him of his being worth no complaint from her.

I want you to come out.

cognate

Verbs that takes a cognate object are: to live (a life), to smile (a smile), to laugh (a laugh), to die (a death), to sigh (a sigh), to sleep (a sleep), to dream (a dream), to run (a race), to fight (a fight, a battle)

He died the death of the hero.

She sighed a heavy sigh.

One must live one’s own life.

 

В табличке все объясненно,но еще раз Дополнения прямы, косвенные и родственные, в примере родстевенное т.к.:

Это формальное беспредложное полудополнение как определение глагольной деятельности. Обычно оно однокоренно со своими непереходными глаголами.

 

He smiled a happy smile – Он расплылся в довольной улыбке — даже пример тот же

 

The dog barked an angry bark – Собака разразилась сердитым лаем

 

3. A secondary pan of the sentence which refers to any other part of the sentence expressed by a verb, an adjective, a stative completing its meaning is… a) an object; b) an attitude; c) a subject.

 

39. The basic informative part of the communication is… a) the rheme b) the thane c) the functional sentence perspective

 

40. The sentence «He ordered himself the dinner the boy had always chosen» is… a) an indiscrete one-member complex sentence b) a discrete two-member complex sentence: c) a complex-compound sentence.

 

One-member sentences in which a subordinate clause refers not to the principal clause but only to a certain part of a principle clause and can’t be excluded from the sentence.

Односоставных предложений, в которых придаточное предложение относится не к главным предложением, но только до определенной частью принципа оговорки и не могут быть исключены из пердложения.

 

41. Identify the functional type of the subordinate clause in the complex sentence (write down).

a) What toy saw tonight was on ending — dependent noun clause

b) Rachel had become aware of the fact; that she was talking loudly; dependent active clause

c) I paused while she took off her coat.dependent adverb clause

http://www.english-grammar-revolution.com/complex-sentence.html

4. The predicate in the sentence “She married young” is…

c) a double predicate

Нашла на одном сайте:
I was talking about the sentences individually, each of which contains a secondary predicate (or, as the original poster called it, a double predication).
1) The moon rose red.
2) She married young.

You are right! These sentences are just two unrelated examples of a double
predicate. https://www.usingenglish.com/forum/threads/105159-Double-predicate

5. The predicate in the sentence “You ought to stop doing that” is…

b) compound modal aspect

Составное глагольное модальное сказуемое (the Modal Verbal Predicate) состоит из модального глагола (ought to) и основного глагола в форме инфинитиваСоставное аспектное модальное сказуемое (compound modal aspect predicate) — это модальное сказуемое, в состав которого входит аспектный глагол. Аспектные глаголы (aspectual verbs) — это глаголы передающие определённый характер протекания действия, глаголы, выражающие то, как действие совершается во времени (начало, конец, продолжительность, повторение) (stop). Аналог compound modal aspect predicate You must start to train regularly. – Ты должен начать тренироваться регулярно. https://engramm.su/grammar/predicate

6. According to the character .. can be personal and impersonal.

a) the subject

Из лекции Барановой:

Character of the subject:

— personal (indefinite person, generalized, definite)

— impersonal

7. a) non-elliptical and elliptical

8. a) or c)??? declarative\ negative

9. a) modality

42. The sentence “He wants you to talk to him first” is…

a) a transition case from simple to composite sentences

The notions of simple sentence and composite sentence are well defined and distinctly opposed to each other, but still some transitional elements can be found between them. Such sentences are termed transitional or semi-composite. The following syntactical phenomena can be considered transitional cases:

1) sentences with homogeneous parts (sometimes also termed «contracted sentences»);

2) sentences with a dependent appendix;

3) sentences with secondary predication.

In English there are several ways of expressing secondary predication: the complex object (e.g. I saw you take it.) The syntactic function of the group you take (or of its elements) can be considered either a complex object (in this case the group is treated is a single syntactic unit) or an object and an objective predicative. The choice between the two interpretations remains arbitrary. There is no universal approach.

http://bookbk.net/book/92-lekcii-po-teoreticheskoj-grammatike-anglijskogo-yazyka-tivyaeva-i-v/57-5-transition-from-simple-to-composite-sentences.html

43. Murdstones treated David cruelly.

The underlined word is…

b) an adverbial complement.

Не уверенна, но на второй вариант ответа adverbial extension информации вообще не нашла, так что остался только первый вариант. Вот информация с сайта.

Adverbial complements are adverbs or other adverbial elements in a clause that are required to complete the meaning of the verb.

Like adverbial adjuncts, adverbial complements modify the meaning of the verb by providing additional information. However, unlike adjuncts, which can be removed without losing meaning, adverbial complements must be included because removing them would cause the sentence to be incomplete or fundamentally altered in its meaning. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Adverbial-Complements.htm

 

 

13. The underlined word group in the following sentence «The first three prizes were awarded to the winners» is…

a) endocentric;

Блумфилд относит к эндоцентрическим все те словосочетания, в которых одна или любая из составляющих может функционировать в большей структуре так же, как и вся группа. Например, poor John представляет собой эндоцентрическое словосочетание, так как составляющая John может заменить сочетание poor John в более развернутом построении: Poor John ran awayJohn ran away. Сочетание Тот and Mary, согласно Блумфилду, также представляет собой эндоцентрическую структуру, так как любая из составляющих может заменить все словосочетание в большем построении: Тоm and Mary ran awayTom ran away; Mary ran away. To, что при этом глагол в настоящем времени меняет свою форму в единственном числе (ср. Тот and Mary run awayTom runs away; Mary runs away), Блумфилд не считает существенным для выделяемых типов словосочетаний.

14. Direct speech act is characterized by

b) the coincidence of its semantics and pragmatics;

Прямыми называются акты, в которых языковая структура совпадает с выражаемым ей содержанием, косвенными – в которых этого совпадения нет. Несколько упрощая, можно сказать, что значение прямого акта складывается из значения его элементов. Косвенный акт фразеологичен (см. Фразеологизм в Лекции № 2). Его содержание напрямую не выводится из значений компонентов.

15. Define the type of syntactic connection within the following word combination: to disrupt deliberately

c)adjoinment – прилягання

ПРИЛЯГАННЯ — зв’язок між словами в словосполученні,

який виражається позиційно (порядком слів) або інтонаційно. Прилягають до стрижневого слова незмінні слова (прислівники, дієприслівники, неозначена форма дієслова). Наприклад: рух уперед, слухати уважно. ТЯЖІННЯ — це узгодження предикативного означення з підметом. Наприклад: Батько повернувся задоволений. ІНКОРПОРАЦІЯ— поєднання слів-коренів, сукупність яких оформляється службовими елементами. ЗАМИКАННЯ — синтаксична побудова, яка вимагає дистантного розташування найтісніше пов’язаних слів.

 

29. According to the function of nouns or noun-like elements modified by itmay be subjective, objective, predicative and appositive.

a) the object;

b) the subject;

c) the attribute.

3.1. Attribute (property)
• Modify nouns and noun equivalents in different syntactic functions; characterize properties of thing expressed by nouns;
According to the function of the Noun, there are peculiar semantic groups of them: subjective, objective, predicative, appositive( уточнюючі)

30. According to the functional significance in the sentence structure adverbial modifiers fall into…

a) simple and complex;

b) quantitative, qualitative, circumstantial;

c) complements and extensions.

3.2. Adverb modif. (modify a verb)

It serves to characterise the action from the point of view of its time, place, purpose, condition, manner, case, result, concession, attended circumstances, degree of comparison, measure, exception.

1. the lexical clas.

qualitative

quantative

circumstantial

2. Morphological clas (morphological structure)

simple

composite (inf. or gerundial phrase,conjuction+noun)

complex (participial, gerund, infinitival const.)

3. Acc. to functional significance in the S.structure

adverbial compounds

adv. extensions

 

31. The classification of complex sentences into one- and two-member is based upon;

a) the correlation of a subordinate clause with some part of speech;

b) the general character of connection between parts of a complex sentence;

c) means of syntactic connection between clauses.

 

 

32. Sentences with the extended homogeneous parts are…

a) composite;

b) a transition case from a simple to composite sentence:

c) compound.

Transition From Simple To Composite Sentences

The notions of simple sentence and composite sentence are well defined and

distinctly opposed to each other, but still some transitional elements can be found

between them. Such sentences are termed transitional or semi-composite. The

following syntactical phenomena can be considered transitional cases:

1) sentences with homogeneous parts (sometimes also termed «contracted

sentences»);

2) sentences with a dependent appendix;

3) sentences with secondary predication.

 

 

 

 

 

33. An elementary communicative speech unit is…

a)   a sentence:

A sentence versus a text. Both elements are communicative ones, but the sentence is the elementary minimal speech unit, which serves to build up a text as a highest supercommunicative unit of which the sentence is only a component (з лекцій)

 

34. The utterantial categories are…(ПОЯСНЕННЯ ЗНАЙДУ)

a)   theme, rheme

b)   topicalization, commentation;

c)   operator, operand

 

35. The basic minimal units of linguistic communication are…

c)   speech acts.

 

John Searle, a philosopher who contributed greatly to the development of the Speech Act Theory, defined speech acts as «the basic or minimal units of linguistic communication» (1969: 16).

 

36. …classification of speech acts is based on felicity conditions.

a)   J.Austin’s; 100% правильно

b)   Ch. Morris’s;

c)   G.Searle’s.

 

37. A set of circumstances in which people interact in some conventional way to arrive at some outcome is…

a)   communicative competence;

b)   speech event. 100% правильно

c)   channel.

38. …fall into actional, perfomative, characterizing, equational and constative.

a)   Utterances;

b)   Word groups;

c)   Composite sentences.

http://studopedia.com.ua/1_287262_The-Syntactic-Field-of-a-Sentence.html (последний пункт)

 

 

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